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结构是光明的设计:Louis I. Kahn的笔记本

经过

在建筑上

Louis I. Khan, 1956 study for center city Philadelphia, ink on tracing paper.

A selection from the architect’s notebooks and drawings, including sketches from his European travels as well as early drafts and finished renderings of his buildings.

有一天,作为一个小男孩,我正在复制拿破仑的肖像。他的左眼让我麻烦。我已经删除了几次图画。我的父亲倾身,深情地纠正了我的工作。我把纸张扔在房间里,说“现在是你的绘画,而不是我的。”两个不能制作一个图。我相信发起人可以检测到最熟练的模仿。在绘图行为中的纯粹喜悦可以在绘图中,也是模仿无法模仿的质量。个人抽象,主题与思想之间的融洽关系也是不可思议的。

在Albi [大教堂]的存在下,我感受到了在选择其建筑元素的选择,以及相结合的令人兴奋和耐心,开始它并朝其完成工作。我从自下而上画了阿尔比,好像我正在建造它。我感到兴奋。建立的耐心,一个人不需要,因为我在不打扰校正或正确的比例的情况下画出它。我只想要捕捉建筑师心中的兴奋。

As notations in music reveal structure and composition for hearing, the plan is the score that reveals the structure and the composition of spaces in natural light.

该计划表达了表格的限制。然后,作为系统的和谐,是所选设计的发电机。该计划是表格的启示。对于一个建筑师来说,整个世界都存在于他的建筑领域......当他穿过一棵树时,他并没有将其视为植物学家,而是将它与他的境界相关联。当他想象的建造时,他会像他想象的那样画这棵树。男人的所有活动都在他的境界,将自己与自己的活动相关联。

A few years ago I visited Carcassonne. From the moment I entered the gates, I began to write with drawing, the images that I learned about now presenting themselves to me like realized dreams. I began studiously to memorize in line the proportions and the living details of these great buildings. I spent the whole day in the courts, on the ramparts, and in the towers, diminishing my care about the proper proportions and exact details. At the close of the day I was inventing shapes and placing buildings in different relationships than they were.

The editors chose several sketches of mood and development of a few projects rather than isolated drawings of a greater number of projects. Such a decision appeals to the architect who starts, like the writer and the painter, with a blank piece of paper upon which he imprints the gradual steps in the development of something he wants to make exist. The sketchbooks of painter, sculptor, and architect should differ. The painter sketches to paint, the sculptor draws to carve, and the architect draws to build.

1951 Delphi from Marmaria, Greece, crayon in notebook.

反思万神殿,被认为是最伟大的建筑之一。它的伟大有很多方面。实现了建筑物可以致力于所有宗教的信念,并且可以表达这种仪式可用空间。它呈现出一个伟大的人的信念,它导致其设计为一个非向圆顶空间。如果架构可以表达为世界内的世界,那么这座建筑也表达了它,甚至通过将Oculus放置在圆顶的中心的唯一窗口,甚至完善它。这座建筑没有先例;它的动机很清楚,充满信仰。其“想要”的力量激发了一种等于其欲望的设计。

今天,建筑需要一个信仰的氛围,为建筑师工作。信仰可以认识到新的机构想要出现并在空间中表达表达。新的信仰附带了新的机构,需要表达为新的空间和新的关系。对机构的特定形式敏感的建筑实现将设置一个新的先例,一个新的开始。我不相信美丽可以故意创造。美丽的发展将成为可能在古老的第一个表达式中。将Paestum与Parthenon进行比较。古老的Paestum是开始。现在是墙壁分成的时间,并且当音乐进入架构时,柱子变得更加小时候。Paestum激发了帕台农神庙。Parthenon被认为更美丽,但Paestum对我来说更美丽。 It presents a beginning within which is contained all the wonder that may follow in its wake. The column as a rhythm of enclosure and opening and the feeling of entering through them to the spaces they envelop is an architectural spirit, a religion that still prevails in our architecture today.

1951卢克索,埃及,笔记本的蜡笔。

A space can never reach its place in architecture without natural light. Artificial light is the light of night expressed in positioned chandeliers not to be compared with the unpredictable play of natural light. The places of entrance, the galleries that radiate from them, the intimate entrances to the spaces of the institution form an independent architecture of connection. This architecture is of equal importance to the major spaces though these spaces are designed only for movement and must therefore be designed to be bathed in natural light. This Architecture of Connection cannot appear in the program of areas—it is what the architect offers the client in his search for architectural balance and direction.

客户要求面积,建筑师必须给他空间;客户在思想走廊,建筑师发现画廊的原因;客户为建筑师提供预算,建筑师必须在经济方面进行思考;客户谈到大厅,建筑师将其带到了入口处的尊严。

建筑处理空间,周到和有意义的空间制作。建筑空间是在空间本身在结构中显而易见的空间。长期跨度是不应该在它内部分散的巨大努力。建筑艺术有空间内空间的精彩示例,但没有欺骗。划分圆顶空间的墙壁会否定整个圆顶的精神。

该结构是光明的设计。拱顶,圆顶,拱门,列是与光的特征相关的结构。自然光在当天的时间间谍和一年中的季节进入并改变空间时,为空间带来了情绪。

1957 A.N.理查兹医学研究大厦,宾夕法尼亚大学,费城,明确研究,铅笔在追踪纸上。

In Gothic times, architects built in solid stones. Now we can build with hollow stones. The spaces defined by the members of a structure are as important as the members. These spaces range in scale from the voids of an insulation panel, voids for air, lighting and heat to circulate, to spaces big enough to walk through or live in. The desire to express voids positively in the design of structure is evidenced by the growing interest and work in the development of space frames. The forms being experimented with come from a closer knowledge of nature and the outgrowth of the constant search for order. Design habits leading to the concealment of structure have no place in this implied order. Such habits retard the development of an art. I believe that in architecture, as in all art, the artist instinctively keeps the marks that reveal how a thing was done. The feeling that our present day architecture needs embellishment stems in part from our tendency to fair joints out of sight, to conceal how parts are put together. Structures should be devised that can harbor the mechanical needs of rooms and spaces. Ceilings with structure furred in tend to erase scale. If we were to train ourselves to draw as we build, from the bottom up, when we do, stopping our pencil to make a mark at the joints of pouring or erecting, ornament would grow out of our love for the expression of method. It follows that it would become intolerable to hide the source of lighting and unwanted ducts, conduits and pipe lines by pasting acoustical material over structure. The sense of structure of the building and how the spaces are served would be lost. The desire to express how it is done would filter through the entire society of building, to architect, engineer, builder, and craftsman.

1962年Chent City Court City City Count,Plan图,墨水的Graham Foundation研究。

Excerpt fromLouis i. Kahn的笔记本和图纸.The book wasoriginally published in 1962, and will be reissued along with a new读者指南由耶鲁英国艺术中心与耶鲁大学出版社合作,与设计师和书籍合作。